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I have seen this exact issue on my KVM host servers (with tons of virtual network devices for all the guest VMs). I noticed it because a search (:node, "hostname:*") didn't return my KVM host servers, while a search (:node, "fqdn:*") did.
I was able to work around the issue in my recipes by changing my searches, and then I got the hostname search working by:
Increasing maxFieldLength 10-fold to 100000 in solrconfig.xml, restarting, and then rebuilding indexes (knife index rebuild). Note that maxFieldLength is in this file in 2 places and should be changed in both locations.
It is a bit scary that this can happen, silently, when searches are relied so much for critical dynamically built config files (monitoring and backups being examples).
It is also a bit unclear to me why hostname is affected, if this has to do more with the number of network interfaces on some systems. Ideally, even if the network interfaces can't be handled properly, beyond some number, it would ideal if the other data was preserved. It would also be useful to know when a search might be returning incomplete data for some reason like this.